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Package net.sf.jasperreports.crosstabs

Contains classes for the Crosstab report element.

See: Description

Package net.sf.jasperreports.crosstabs Description

Contains classes for the Crosstab report element.

A crosstab is a special type of report element that summarizes data into a two-dimensional grid. Crosstabs usually display the joint distribution of two or more variables in the form of a table in which both rows and columns are dynamic, and in which the table cells use these variables to display aggregate data such as sums, counts, minimums, and maximums.

Crosstabs are useful because they are easy to understand, can be used with any level of data (nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio), and provide greater insight than single statistics.

Crosstab Attributes

When a crosstab does not fit entirely on the current page and either a column or row break occurs, the crosstab is split into multiple pieces and continues on the same page or overflows onto a new page. By default, the subsequent crosstab pieces redisplay the column and rows headers, in order to recreate the context for the values displayed inside the crosstab cells. To suppress this behavior, set the isRepeatColumnHeaders and isRepeatRowHeaders attributes to false.

When a column break occurs and there is still enough space on the current page, the subsequent crosstab piece is placed below the previous one at a controlled offset that you can specify with the columnBreakOffset attribute.

Crosstabs can either be filled from left to right (the default) or from right to left (mainly for reports in right-to-left languages). When a crosstab is filled from right to left, the crosstab contents will start from the right extremity of the crosstab element area and grow toward the left. The filling direction can be specified using the runDirection attribute.

The declared width of the crosstab element is important because, depending on the ignoreWidth attribute, the crosstab can either stretch beyond the width limit and fill all its columns before rendering the next row, or on the contrary, would be forced to stop rendering columns within the crosstab width limit and continue with the remaining columns only after all rows have started rendering.

Crosstab Parameters

Crosstabs use an internal calculation engine for bucketing and preparing the aggregated data they display. However, sometimes it is useful to pass single values from the containing report and display them inside the crosstab. This would be the case for some crosstab header titles.

Any number of crosstab parameters can be declared inside the crosstab element. Each parameter has its own name and type, as well as its own expression used at runtime to obtain the value to pass into the crosstab.

All parameters must be declared explicitly using the corresponding <crosstabParameter> tag, even when no expression is associated with the parameter and all parameter values are passed from the parent report using a single java.util.Map instance through the <parametersMapExpression> tag.
Crosstab parameters can be referenced only from crosstab cell expressions using the $P{} syntax, so they can participate only in the displayed values.

Crosstab Dataset

The crosstab calculation engine aggregates data by iterating through an associated dataset. This can be the parent report's main dataset or a dataset run that uses one of the report's declared subdatasets.
Crosstab dataset resetting, incrementing, and filtering out data work the same as for the main dataset.

Presorted Data

The calculation engine of a crosstab works faster if the data in its associated dataset is already sorted in accordance with the row and column groups (buckets) declared by the crosstab, in this order: row buckets, and then column buckets.

If data is not already sorted in the dataset before the iteration starts, then the crosstab calculation engine can sort it during the data aggregation process using supplied comparators. However, this will result in some performance loss.

Data Grouping (Bucketing)

The original dataset data through which the crosstab calculation engine iterates to make the required data aggregation must be grouped in accordance with the declared rows and columns of the crosstab. Row and column groups in a crosstab rely on group items called buckets. A bucket definition consists of the following:

Row Groups

Crosstabs can have any number of row groups, nested according to the order in which they were declared.

All groups require a unique name, specified using the name attribute. This name is used to reference the group when declaring the content of its corresponding cells or when referencing the bucket values of the group to display them in the group headers.

A row group can have one header for introducing the rows that correspond to each distinct bucket value and a special header for introducing the totals of the group when the crosstab ends or when a higher-level row group breaks due to a changing bucket value. Both header areas are optional. If present, they have a free-form layout. You can place almost any kind of report element inside, except for subreports, charts, and crosstabs.

For each row header, specify the width in pixels using the width attribute. This value is used by the engine to render the headers that introduce bucket values. For the totals header, the width comes as a sum of the row headers it wraps.

When multiple nested row groups are used in the crosstab, the height of the row headers for the higher-level groups grows in order to wrap the rows of the nested groups. The headerPosition attribute determines how the row header content should adapt to the increased height.

The totalPosition attribute controls the appearance of the row that displays the totals for the row group. Possible values are:

When multiple nested row groups are used in the crosstab, the height of the row headers for the higher-level groups grows in order to wrap the rows of the nested groups. The headerPosition attribute determines how the row header content should adapt to the increased height. The possible values for this attribute are as follows: By default, the row header content stays at the top of the row header area.

Column Groups

A crosstab can contain any number of nested columns. The order of column groups is also important.

Column groups are also uniquely identified by the name attribute, typically to reference the column group (when declaring the content of its corresponding cells) or the bucket values of the group (for display in the group headers).

Any column group can have two optional header regions, one at the top of the bucket columns and the other at the top of the column displaying the totals of the column group.
These column header regions have a free-form layout and can contain any kind of report element, except subreports, charts, and crosstabs.

The height attribute specifies the height of the column headers in pixels. The header for the group totals column takes its height from the total height of the column headers it wraps.

The column headers of crosstabs with multiple nested column groups must adapt their content to the increased width caused by the nested columns they wrap. There are four possibilities as specified by the values of the headerPosition attribute:

By default, the column header content stays to the left of the column header area.

The totalPosition attribute controls the appearance of the column that displays the totals for the column group:

Measures

The crosstab calculation engine aggregates data, called a measure, while iterating through the associated dataset. A measure is typically displayed in the crosstab cells. For each thing that the crosstab needs for accumulating data during bucketing, a corresponding measure must be declared.

Crosstab measures are identified by a unique name. The value of the name attribute of a measure cannot coincide with any row or column group names.

Just like report variables, crosstab measures have an associated type specified by the class attribute.

The <measureExpression> tag specifies the expression that produces the values used by the calculation engine to increment the measure during the data aggregation process.

Crosstab measures behave just like report variables. They store a value that is incremented with each iteration through the crosstab dataset. The supported types of calculations are the same for measure as for report variables, except for the calculation type System, which does not make sense for measures.

Furthermore, custom-defined calculations can be introduced using implementations of the JRExtendedIncrementer interface.

In addition to the calculations supported by the report variables and mentioned in the preceding paragraph, one can use crosstabs to calculate and display percentage values for numerical measurements that have calculation type Sum or Count. To do this, set the percentageOf attribute to a value other than None. Currently, only percentages of the grand total of the crosstab are supported.

The percentage calculation is a type of calculation that requires at least a second pass through the data after the totals are calculated. However, there may be other custom made calculations that require a similar second pass. To enable users to define their own types of calculations that require a second pass, implement the JRPercentageCalculator interface and associate it with the measure using the percentageCalculatorClass attribute.

Built-in Crosstab Total Variables

The value of a measure is available inside a crosstab cell through a variable bearing the same name as the measure. In addition to the current value of the measure, totals of different levels corresponding to the cell can be accessed through variables named according to the following scheme:

For example, if one creates a crosstab having Year and Month column groups, a City row group, and a Sales measure, the following variables can be used:

These variables can be used in both detail and total cells. In total cells, such a variable can be used to access a total corresponding to a higher-level group of the same dimension (for example, in a Month total cell, Sales_Year_ALL can be used as the total for all the years) or a total corresponding to a group on the other dimension (for example, in a Month total cell, Sales_City_ALL can be used as the total for all the cities and one year).

A typical usage of these variables is to show measure values as percentages out of arbitrary level totals.

Crosstab Governor

The crosstab calculation engine performs all calculations in memory. If large volumes of data are processed, it could be possible to run out of memory due to the large number of totals and aggregation variables that the engine keeps track of.

To avoid the situation in which the JVM raises an OutOfMemory error, and thus triggers memory reclaim procedures with potentially serious effects on the application's overall behavior, a crosstab governor has been put in place. This is basically a simple memory consumption test that the engine performs when filling a crosstab, to check whether a given memory threshold has been reached. When the limit is reached, the program raises an exception that can be caught and dealt within the caller program, preventing a more serious OutOfMemory error from occurring.

The governor threshold is given as an integer number representing the maximum number of cells multiplied by the number of measures in the generated crosstab. It can be set using the net.sf.jasperreports.crosstab.bucket.measure.limit configuration property. This property defaults to -1, meaning that the crosstab governor is disabled by default.

Crosstab Cells

A crosstab cell is a rectangular area at the intersection of a crosstab row and a crosstab column. The cell is a free-form element that can contain any kind of report element except subreports, charts, and crosstabs.

Crosstab cells are of two types:

The crosstab cell at the intersection of a row bucket value and a column bucket value (called the detail crosstab cell) can be declared using a <crosstabCell> tag in which both the rowTotalGroup and columnTotalGroup attributes are empty. For the detail crosstab cell, both the width and the height attributes are mandatory, specifying the size of the cell in pixels.

Total crosstab cells are those declared using a <crosstabCell> tag for which at least one of the two rowTotalGroup and columnTotalGroup attributes are present and point to a row group or a column group, respectively.

If the rowTotalGroup attribute is present, then the crosstab cell displays column totals for the mentioned row group. For such total crosstab cells, only the height is configurable, and the width is forced by the detail cell.

If the columnTotalGroup attribute is present, then the cell displays row totals for the specified column group. For these cells, only the width is configurable, and the cell inherits the value of the height attribute from the detail cell.

All crosstab cells can have a background color and a border, specified by the background attribute and the nested <box> tag, respectively. In the resulting document, each crosstab cell is transformed into a frame element containing all the nested elements of that cell.

The optional <crosstabHeaderCell> tag defines the content of the region found at the upper-left corner of the crosstab where column headers and row headers meet. The size of this cell is calculated automatically based on the defined row and column widths and heights.

The optional <whenNoDataCell> defines a pseudo-crosstab cell used by the engine to display something when the crosstab does not have any data. The crosstab dataset might not have any virtual records to iterate through, raising the question of what to display in the parent report.
If this pseudo-cell is declared, its content is rendered if the crosstab data is missing, allowing users to view messages such as "No data for the crosstab!" instead of only empty space.

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